Dual Federalism

The system the framers set up is often referred to as dual federalism.  It is a system of divided sovereignty where the federal government exercises a narrow range of constitutionally delegated powers independently of the states, and state governments exercise the powers reserved to them independently of the federal government.[1] 

However, the Constitution also created shared powers. These so-called concurrent powers include powers to legislate, establish banks and corporations, tax, borrow, confiscate property (only for public use and only with compensation to owners), and operate judicial systems.  Thus, in summary, the Constitution established a system of divided and shared powers.

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[1] Kincaid, J. (2017). The eclipse of dual federalism by one-way cooperative federalism. Arizona State Law Journal, 49, 1061-1089. See p. 1062.

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