- Electoral democracies (illiberal democracies) regularly hold multiparty elections that are somewhat free and fair, but political and civil rights are weak, and the law is unevenly applied. These deficiencies make it possible to rig elections and legislative outcomes and avoid accountability to voters.
- Electoral autocracies hold de-jure multiparty elections for the chief executive, but they fall short of democratic standards due to limitations on political competition and other means of ensuring one group or person holds power. Only a favored few people or groups enjoy any political and civil liberties. Dissent is often repressed.
- In closed autocracies, the chief executive is either not elected or has no competition in an election. Only a favored few people or groups enjoy any political and civil liberties. Dissent is often harshly repressed.
Well-functioning, liberal, republican democracies have six primary advantages relative to illiberal regimes. They are:
- Less corrupt;
- More inclusive;
- Better problem-solvers;
- More stable and less violent;
- Offer more amenities; and
- Are richer and happier.
Note: If you are having a hard time seeing the words liberal, republican, and democracy put together, please see this short course.
Excerpted from Democracy is Precious.